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Comparing OSI and TCP/IP

The OSI model has many similarities to the TCP/IP model from a basic conceptual perspective.
It has (seven) layers, and each layer defines a set of typical networking functions. As
with TCP/IP, the OSI layers each refer to multiple protocols and standards that implement
the functions specified by each layer. In other cases, just as for TCP/IP, the OSI committees
did not create new protocols or standards, but instead referenced other protocols that were
already defined. For example, the IEEE defines Ethernet standards, so the OSI committees
did not waste time specifying a new type of Ethernet; it simply referred to the IEEE
Ethernet standards.

Today, the OSI model can be used as a standard of comparison to other networking models.
Figure 1-15 compares the seven-layer OSI model with both the four-layer and five-layer
TCP/IP models.
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Figure 1-15 OSI Model Compared to the Two TCP/IP Models
Next, this section examines two ways in which we still use OSI terminology today: to
describe other protocols and to describe the encapsulation process. Along the way, the text
briefly examines each layer of the OSI model.

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